Bichon Frise
Information Station

serving the worldwide Bichon Frise community




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LEGAL DISCLAIMER: All information contained on these pages is offered as a helpful service.  It it not intended as medical counsel or taking the place of professional guidance. Please seek the services of  a competent veterinarian or professional dog trainer at the first indication of problems.

(Please consult your medical adviser for professional assessment)

A typical blood chemistry panel usually includes ...

General Metabolism Kidney Function Electrolytes

Liver Function

Thyroid Pancreas

GLU  (Glucose)
LDH  (Lactate dehydrogenase)
CPK  (Creatine phosphokinase)


BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen)
CREAT (Creatinine)


Na  (Sodium)
Cl  (Chloride)
CA (Calcium)
PHOS (Phosphorus)

ALP  (Alkaline phosphatase)
ALB  (Albumin)
GGT  (Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase)
SGPT   (Serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase
TP  (Total Protein)
CHOL  (Cholesterol)
GLOB  (Globulin)
TBILI  (Total Bilirubin)

T3 (Triiodothyronine)
T4  (Thyroxine)


AMY (Amylase)
LIP  (Lipase)


Normal values for blood chemistry elements for dogs are displayed in the table below. 

Keep in mind that each blood chemistry machine and every veterinary diagnostic lab has their own set of
normal values calculated for their particular instrumentation.  The values shown here may be different
from normal ranges your veterinarian refers to when making judgments about patients' reported blood chemistry values.




GLU- GLUCOSE 67 - 125 mg/dL High levels can help diagnose diabetes and can indicate stress, excess of the hormone progesterone, an overactive adrenal gland. Low levels can indicate liver disease, tumors or abnormal growth on pancreas, an underactive adrenal gland.
ALT - Alanine aminotransferase
10 - 84 U/L An enzyme that becomes elevated with liver disease
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALKP) 20-200 - An enzyme produced by the biliary tract (liver). High levels indicate bone disease, liver disease or bile flow blockage.
TOTAL BILIRUBIN (TBILI) 0.04 - 0.40  mg/dL A component of bile, bilirubin is secreted by the liver into the intestinal tract. High levels can lead to jaundice and indicate destruction in the liver and bile duct.

5.2 - 7.8 gm/dL Increases indicate dehydration or blood cancer, bone marrow cancer; decreases indicate malnutrition, poor digestion, liver or kidney disease, bleeding or burns.
GLOBULIN(GLOB) .9 - 4.0 Decreased levels indicate problems with antibodies, immunodeficiency viruses or risk of infectious disease. Increased levels may indicate stress, dehydration or blood cancer, allergies, liver disease, heart disease, arthritis, diabetes.
9 - 27 mg/dL BUN is produced by the liver and excreted by the kidneys. Decreased levels are seen with low protein diets, liver insufficiency, and the use of anabolic steroid drug. Increased levels indicate any condition that reduces the kidney's ability to filter body fluids in the body or interferes with protein breakdown.
2.6 - 6.8 mg/dL

Affected by diet, parathormone and kidney. Decreased levels shows overactive parathyroid gland and malignancies, malnutrition and malabsorption. Increases with underactive parathyroid gland and kidney failure.
Creatinine (CREA)   .4  - 1.4 Creatinine is a by-product of muscle metabolism and is excreted by the kidneys. Elevated levels can indicate kidney disease or urinary obstruction, muscle disease, arthritis, hyperthyroidism, and disbetes. An increased BUN and normal creatinine suggest an early or mild problem. An increased creatinine and increased BUN with elevated phosphorus indicate a long standing kidney disease.
Amylase (AMYL) 200 - 1290 The pancreas produces and secrets amylase to aid in digestion. Elevated blood levels can indicate pancreatic and/or kidney disease.
Calcium (CA) 9.5 - 12.0 Blood calcium levels are influenced by diet, hormone levels and blood protein levels. Decreased levels indicate acute damage to the pancrease or undersctive parathyroid. Muscle twitches may occur in decreased level. Increased levels can be an indicator of certain types of tumors, parthyroid or kidney disease. Dr. Goldstein mentioned in his book, Nature of Animal Healing that low calcium level may indicate deficiency of pancreatic enzymes, and high calcium level may indicate poor metabolism of fats and protein.
SODIUM (Na) 140 - 153 mmol/L  
CHLORIDE (CI) 106 - 118 mmol/L  
10 - 273 U/L  
MAGNESIUM 1.5 - 2.7 mg/dL  
LIPASE (LIP) 200 - 700 U/L  
CPK  (Creatine phosphokinase) 20 - 200  
GGT  (Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) 1.2  
Albumin (ALB)
2.5- 4.3 Produced by the liver, reduced levels of this protein can point to chronic liver or kidney disease, or parasitic infections such as hookworm. High levels indicate dehydration and loss of protein.
CHOLESTEROL(CHOL) - 110- 314 Decreased levels are found in an overactive thyroid gland, interstinal malabsorption. Elevated levels of cholesterol are seen in a variety of disorders including hypothyroidism and diseases of the liver, kidneys, cardiovascular, diabetes, stress.
Triglycerides 20 - 200  
LDH  (Lactate dehydrogenase) 30-190  
THYROXINE (T4) 1.0 - 4.7 ug/dL  

HEMATOLOGY:  Normal ranges for blood cell elements for dogs are displayed in the table below.  These values are approximate and may not be the "normal" values established for any other individual veterinary pathology lab or blood analyzer.



Red Blood Cell Count (RBC) 5.5 - 8.5 X 100,000/L Responsible for carrying oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Iron deficiency will lower RBC count. In more reduced count, it may indicate hemorrhage, parasites, bone marrow disease, B-12 deficiency, folic acid deficiency or copper deficiency. RBC lives for 120 days so an anemia of any kind other than hemorrhage indicates a long standing problem.
White Blood Cell Count (WBC) 6.0 - 17 x 1000/L The body's primary means of fighting infection. Decreased levels may indicate an overwhelming infections (viruses), or drug / chemical poisoning. Increased levels indicate bacterial infection, emotinal upsets and blood disorders.
(MCH) Mean Corpustular Hemaglobin 19.5 - 25.5 pg  
(RDW)  Red Cell Distribution Width 14 - 19 percent  
Hematocrit - (HCT) 37 - 55 percent or Packed Cell Volume (PCV) - Provides information on the amount of red blood cells (RBC) present in the blood. Decreased levels means anemia from hemorrhage, parasites, nutritional deficiencies or chronic disease process, such as liver disease, cancer, etc. . Increased levels are often seen in dehydration.
Hemoglobin (HgB or Hb) g/L
120-180 The essential oxygen carrier of the blood. Decreased levels indicate the presence of hemorrhage, anemia, iron deficiency. Increased levels indicate higher than normal concentrate of RBC, B-12 deficiency (because there are fewer cells).
Reticulocytes 0-1.5% Immature red blood cells. Decreased count is usually associate with anemia. Increased count is associated with chronic hemorrage or hemolytic anemia                       
Segs x1000/ul 3.6-11.5  
Bands  x1000/ul 0.0-0.3


Lymphocytes  x1000/ul 1.0-4.8


(L/M) - These smooth, round white blood cells increase in number with chronic infection, recovery from acute infection or underactive glands and decrease with stress, or treatment with steroids and chemotherapy drug.
Monocytes  x1000/ul 0.15-1.35


Eosinophils  x1000/ul 0.01-1.25   


Electrolytes - (Sodium, Potassium, Chloride) -   The balance of these chemicals is vital to health. Abnormal levels can be life threatening. Electrolyte tests are important in evaluating vomiting, diarrhea and cardiac symptoms.
Platelets x 100000/ul (PLT) 2-9


Play an important role in blood clotting. Decrease in number occurs in bone marrow depression, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, systemic lupus, severe hemorrhage or intravascular coagulation. Increased number may occurs with fracture or blood vessel injury, or cancer.